Today, continuing from the previous issue, we would like to discuss "basic income.
Basic income" may sound a bit difficult to understand, but it is essentially "unearned income," money that can be obtained without having to work.
Japan currently has a "welfare" system, but the fundamental difference is that it is "government-led" and is not a "fairness-oriented system" but an "equality-oriented policy. The fundamental difference is that it is a "government-led" and "equality-oriented policy" rather than a "fairness-oriented system.
As I have mentioned before, "fairness" is more important in Japanese society, where inequality is so pronounced. In fact, there is a great deal of opposition from citizens to consumption tax hikes, but they seem to be indifferent to corporate taxation and income taxation.
What is welfare in a nutshell?
1) The public assistance is not provided unless the person who wants to receive it goes to the city office and applies for it. This is called the "application-based system. If you are a resident, the money is not automatically transferred to your bank account or sent to you by registered mail, as is the case with the basic income system. 2.
2. welfare benefits are not granted on an individual basis as in the case of basic income, but on a household basis. Therefore, even if an individual is in need, if other family members living under the same roof have incomes above the standard, the individual cannot receive protection. 3.
3. the welfare system checks the individual's background to see if he or she meets the conditions for protection. The check includes whether or not you have assets, how long you can work, and how much income you have. To put it more precisely, the government checks how much of your income, after deducting expenses and other costs, is below the "minimum cost of living" set by the government for each region, and only the portion of your income that is below the minimum cost is paid.
However, in Japan's public assistance system, this survey does not function sufficiently, and it is said that only 20% of all people who are entitled to receive public assistance benefits receive them (low catch rate), which is one of the challenges of the public assistance system.
Thus, the reality is that it is not even possible to guarantee a life just above the minimum line.
Is it really possible to lead a healthy and cultural life?
Advantages of Introducing Basic Income
First of all, the introduction of a basic income system is considered to have the merits of "eliminating poverty" and "reducing long working hours.
Elimination of the poverty problem
Since cash is provided unconditionally, it can help people living in poverty and may provide an opportunity for them to get out of poverty. It also helps to prevent crimes such as theft that are caused by poverty problems.
Reduction of long working hours
The introduction of a basic income system will contribute in no small measure to the reduction of illegal long working hours, which have become a social problem. If a basic income system can provide people with enough money to live at least a minimum standard of living, there will be no need for people to work excessive hours. This is expected to reduce the number of deaths from overwork and suicides.
To put it simply, a basic income system will allow people to abandon the idea that "in order to eat, you have to do without.
The possibility of "self-actualization" may be expanded.
Disadvantages of Introducing a Basic Income
There are two issues that need to be addressed when introducing a basic income system: (1) "Workers' motivation will decrease," and (2) "How to secure financial resources?
Decrease in Worker Motivation
When basic income is introduced, workers are likely to lose motivation because they will be able to secure a minimum income even if they do not work. On the other hand, it cannot be denied that there is a risk that more people will choose jobs that are worthwhile even if the wages are low, and that jobs that do not attract popularity will fall into a shortage of human resources.
Calculating the Appropriate Amount
What is the appropriate amount of money to provide as basic income? For example, it may be considered acceptable if the amount is equivalent to the amount of welfare payments. In addition, the minimum cost of living depends on various factors such as personal values and family structure. Calculating an amount that is acceptable to all citizens is also a challenge.
Securing Financial Resources
A major obstacle to the introduction of basic income is securing financial resources. A huge amount of funds will be required to provide a minimum level of benefits to each citizen, and the tax burden on the wealthy is expected to become heavier in the process. In addition, if basic income is introduced, it is highly likely that other social security programs will be abolished due to financial constraints, which may result in a reversal of the original plan.
Securing financial resources still seems to be a major problem, but it seems to be even more difficult to recover more than that if there is no increase in the motivation and productivity of the people.
This is a rough idea, but which is it for you?
I think the existence of this system is good, but there is room for more discussion. When talking about economics, there are many things that can go wrong because of the assumption that humans are rational creatures. I believe that we have an obligation to explain to the public how we should consider the possibility of this range, and how much money we should spend, rather than just estimating it in terms of a point. We must not forget that this is only for the benefit of the public.